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Author: NailThatJello Big red star, 1000 posts Top Recommended Fools Ticker Guide Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: of 30311  
Subject: Re: Diet soda causes diabetes? Date: 2/11/2013 8:59 PM
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Artificial sweeteners don't affect your blood sugar level.

- Mayo Clinic

What about insulin though? Maybe it goes up even if blood sugar doesn't - since you haven't consumed sugar?

Insulin has additional negative effects on the body besides fat storage.

Here are a few bits from googling around. As usual, they are confusing/contradictory:

In theory, fake sugar would seem like a great way to beat the system. After all, artificial sweeteners don't raise blood sugar, so they do help those with diabetes. But Mother Nature isn't fooled. "The problem with non-nutritive, noncaloric sweeteners is that the body senses them through the same mechanisms used to sense sugar," said Tim Osborne, professor of diabetes and obesity research at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute in Lake Nona. When these sweet receptors get tripped, studies suggest, they turn on a mechanism that causes the body to absorb more dietary sugar and potentially convert more of that energy to fat, Osborne said.

Artificial sweeteners are not all created equally. An article published in the journal "Hormone and Metabolic Research" in 1987 reported that the artificial sweetener acesulfame-K increases the release of insulin. One of the earliest artificial sweeteners, aspartame, was shown early on to have a positive affect on insulin secretion, according to an article published in 1986 in the "Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice" journal. Sucralose moves undigested through your digestive system without affecting insulin or blood sugar, according to a student paper on Vanderbilt University's Health Psychology site. Stevia does not cause a spike in insulin and may also improve glucose tolerance, a 1986 article in "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research" reported. Stevia might also improve insulin resistance, according to an animal study published in "Planta Medica" in February 2005.

Injection of Acesulfame K (150 mg/kg body weight) increased the plasma insulin concentration at 5 min from 27.3 +/- 3.0 microU/ml to 58.6 +/- 4.2 microU/ml without any significant change in the blood glucose. Infusion of Acesulfame K (20 mg/kg body weight/min) for one hour maintained the insulin concentration at a high level (about 85-100 microU/ml) during this period, and at the same time blood glucose was gradually reduced from 103.0 +/- 7.3 to 72.0 +/- 7.2 mg/dl. When using different amounts of Acesulfame K, the insulin secretion was stimulated in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of Acesulfame K on insulin secretion was similar to that observed by injecting or infusing the same doses of glucose (150 mg/kg) body weight for injection and 20 mg/kg body weight/min for infusion), except that no hyperglycemia was observed with Acesulfame K.

Animal studies have indicated that a sweet taste induces an insulin response in rats. However, the extension of animal model findings to humans is unclear, as human studies of intragastric infusion of sucralose have shown no insulin response from analogous taste receptors. The release of insulin causes blood sugar to be stored in tissues (including fat). In the case of a response to artificial sweeteners, because blood sugar does not increase there can be increased hypoglycemia or hyperinsulinemia and increased food intake the next time there is a meal. Rats given sweeteners have steadily increased calorie intake, increased body weight, and increased adiposity (fatness). Furthermore, the natural responses to eating sugary foods (eating less at the next meal and using some of the extra calories to warm the body after the sugary meal) are gradually lost. A 2005 study by the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio showed that increased weight gain and obesity were associated with increased use of diet soda in a population-based study.

The notion that artificial sweeteners (and sweet tastes in general) might produce an insulin response is one of those murky memes that winds itself around the blogs, but it’s never stated one way or the other with any sort of confidence. Do artificial sweeteners induce insulin secretion (perhaps via cephalic phase insulin release, which is sort of the body’s preemptive strike against foods that will require insulin to deal with)?

One of the reasons a definitive answer is rarely given is that artificial sweeteners are not a monolithic entity. There are multiple types of sweeteners, all of them chemically distinct from each other. Here I break them out:

Overall, the evidence seems to suggest little, if any, effect on insulin secretion as a result of tasting or consuming aspartame.

We haven’t seen people orally taking acesulfame K in a fasted state and having an insulin response. Yet.

The evidence for saccharin’s effect on insulin is mixed, but either way, it doesn’t appear to have too big of an impact in real world terms.

There’s not much if any evidence that sucralose has an independent in vivo effect on insulin.

So far as I can tell, according to the literature there isn’t an appreciable insulin effect from most sweeteners.

I like this last guy's the most, because he cited research.
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