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Does the amount that puts me at the max only get added ($400) and the remainder stays in my pay?

Yes. Your employer will cut off your contributions at the cap.

It depends on your program. In my case, anything over the max is added as after tax. My balance is composed of the following sources:
basic pre-tax, Roth after tax and additional after tax. I really try to limit the additional after tax as it does not benefit from tax free growth like the Roth or from tax deferred contribution like the pre-tax.
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