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I couldn't find any numbers, but I'd be surprised if the number of his followers equalled even 0.1% of the Jewish population at that time.

That's way off. He had 1/3 of the european jewish communities as followers including entire jewish areas. The fallout was so severe that kabbalists after him (including the Ramchal and others) had a severely difficult time teaching, and often had to leave their communities. It also played into the Misnagdim and their opposition to the chasidic movement.

American jewish life magazine says:

"Within twelve months, Shabbetai Tzvi counted among his followers more than one third of the European Jewish community. People left their homes, sold their belongings, and awaited the reconquest of Israel. Entire communities were overturned, with Shabbatean leaders replacing traditional ones. In fulfillment of Kabbalistic prophecies, fast days were turned to feast days, and certain ritual laws annulled. Indeed, not to believe in Shabbetai Tzvi was regarded, in many communities, as a lack of faith.

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