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Since this is labeled "Additional W-4 withholding...", I'll mention my non-scientific strategy:

If I am pretty sure my non-wage income and itemized deductions will be substantially the same as last year, when I owe, I take the amount I owe, divide that by the number of paychecks I have left in the year, and that becomes the additonal amount to add to the "Additional tax to withhold" on the new W-4 that I file that day.

I have been doing that for about 20 years and it has worked out fairly well. I had to re-do the math when there was a substantial change (in my case, purchase of my residence to allow for additional estimated deductions), but otherwise it has worked well.

Do NOT change W-4 just for contributing to a 401(k), 403(b), or equivalent employer-provided plan--this will automatically be taken care of by the withholding tables if one remains within the same marginal tax rate.
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