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Author: edawg8 Old School Fool Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: of 24983  
Subject: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/5/2000 6:20 PM
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In light of the need for more information and understanding of the biotech sector, I propose the creation of a common FAQ to act as a convenient repository of knowledge for us biotech fools to use. I don't know about my fellow fools, but I for one feel like I just don't have time to follow every single thread on numerous individual company boards, and would really like a thorough overview of the sector to put everything into perspective. I contend that, as we understand this sector better as individuals, we can more intelligently discuss the issues, as well as perform better research as we muck around for info on our favorite companies. The end result is that we all benefit; how well we cooperate and share information will determine the degree of benefit.

I also propose that it should be updated every once in a while to remain accurate and timely -- whoever's updating it should retain the contents of the previous versions of the FAQ except where the information is incorrect, and credit should be granted to its contributors.

Okay, someone's gotta start this thing, so I might as well give it a shot...

GENOMICS COMPANIES

Note: you can scroll down to the Genetics Concepts section if you need some clarification.

Q. What's the scoop on these genomics companies? Who are the players?

A. I've heard of Human Genome Sciences (HGSI), Incyte Pharmaceuticals (INCY), Millenium Pharmaceuticals (MLNM), Genome Therapeutics (GENE), Genentech (DNA), Celera Genomics (CRA), Gene Logic (GLGC), Myriad Genetics (MYGN), Genset (GENXY), PE Biosystems (PEB), Affymetrix (AFFX). Fellow fools can add to this list for subsequent versions of the FAQ.

Q. What do they do?

A. You can take a look at their company briefs by clicking their links below:

HGSI: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=hgsi&iPage=qd
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1130088000055000&sort=postdate
(this is Elric Seven's post of the Fools' HGSI Tour)

INCY: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=incy&iPage=qd

MLNM: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=mlnm&iPage=qd

GENE:
http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=gene&iPage=qd

DNA: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=dna&iPage=qd

CRA: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=cra&iPage=qd

GLGC: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=glgc&iPage=qd

MYGN: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=mygn&iPage=qd

GENXY: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=genxy&iPage=qd

PEB: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=peb&iPage=qd

AFFX: http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/research/profile.asp?Symbol=affx&iPage=qd

Q. What about this race between HGSI and CRA to sequence the entire genome?

A. I've heard more than a few people get the company Human Genome Sciences (HGSI) confused with Celera and the government sponsored Human Genome Project (HGP). This could be due to slightly misleading information found in two articles:

1. The otherwise excellent Buy Report article on CRA from the RuleBreaker port, near the end of the 1st Rule: Top Dog or First Mover in an important, emerging industry, section, says "As soon as Celera was born, HGSI increased its intentions regarding its mapping of the genome." This undoubtedly should read HGP, instead of HGSI.
http://www.fool.com/portfolios/rulebreaker/trades/rulebreakertrade_cra991216.htm

2. The otherwise excellent Individual Investor article on genomics stocks, says "Unlike companies such as Human Genome and Celera Genomics, which are hastily mapping the entire DNA sequence..."

http://www.individualinvestor.com/tbd/anfdt_frm.asp?ff_id=3934

Okay, for the record, Human Genome Sciences (HGSI) has nothing to do with either the Human Genome Project (HGP) or Celera. HGSI is not in the business of sequencing the entire genome. Celera and the HGP are. HGSI is all about discovering and sequencing individual genes and using them to make drugs, growth factors, and signalling molecules.

GENETICS CONCEPTS

Q. Gene, genome, chromosome, DNA, base pairs? What's the difference?

A. Here's how I understand it. For you molecular biologists and geneticists out there, if there's something wrong, tell us so it can be corrected for the next version of the FAQ.

Let's use the common encyclopedia analogy to help us. Although this is far from a scientific analogy, it's easier to understand like this...

1. A gene would be represented by an individual article on something, e.g., the light bulb. You want to know how a light bulb works, you read it. In a similar way, the hair color gene, for example, contains the instructions on how to build hair of a specific color.

2. A chromosome would be like a single volume out of the encylcopedia set, e.g., Volume 6, F-G. All the articles that begin with the letter F or G would be in this volume. Similarly, chromosome 6 would have a whole bunch of genes on it (what genes are there and what they do is what the scientists are trying to find out).

3. The genome would be like the entire encyclopedia set, which, for us contains 14,000 articles (genes) in 46 volumes (chromosomes). Genome refers to the entire genetic code of a species (e.g., human genome, drosophila/fruit fly genome, H.influenzae genome).

4. DNA would be represented by the patterns of ink and paper of the encyclopedia. It is what genes are made out of, much like articles are comprised of a whole bunch of different patterns of ink printed on a sheet of paper. Don't get wrapped up thinking what DNA does -- it does nothing. It's simply the material that genes are made out of. It's just like saying what is this desk made out of? Wood. What is the encyclopedia made out of? Nothing more than ink and paper. And the human genome? Yeah, it's made out of DNA.

5. Base pairs are like specific patterns of ink. For example, a straight line up and down represents the letter l, and a circle pattern represents the letter o. So, a base is like a letter. But with humans, there are only 4 "letters" in that genetic alphabet: A, C, T, and G. Strangely enough, they make enough words, sentences, and paragraphs for a whole bunch of articles on everything from hair color to body weight. As for bases being "paired", don't worry about that for now. It will just confuse you.

Q. What about amino acids, proteins, cDNA, mRNA, ribosomes, etc.?

A. Okay, so you got a bunch of genes. These genes contain instructions or messages that must be expressed eventually as proteins. These proteins essentially carry out the instructions encoded in the genes. A whole series of steps occur before a gene is expressed as a protein, though.

Let's use an analogy here of music being recorded from a CD onto a tape, and then being played back in a walkman...

Let's say a CD is just like a chromosome. It's got a whole bunch of tracks on it just like a chromosome has a whole bunch of genes on it. But say for some reason that you can't actually listen to music off a CD. It must be recorded onto tape before you can listen to it on your walkman. In much the same way, information encoded in your genes cannot be read directly by the body. A gene must first be transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) (imagine that the mRNA is like a song recorded onto tape) with the help of transcription factors and polymerase enzymes (let's say TF's and polymerases are like the CD player and tape recorder -- they read the information off the CD and record it onto tape). mRNA makes its way out of the cell's nucleus (where all the genes are stored, like a CD collection) and is translated into protein 3 bases at a time by a ribosome. With the CD/tape analogy, let's say that it's like taking the tape out of the tape recorder, putting it into your walkman, and pressing play. Each trio of bases (e.g., ACG) is called a codon. As the codons pass through the ribosome in sequence, a transfer RNA molecule carrying a specific amino acid on its back links up with its respective codon, forming a chain of amino acids. This is like the music recorded on the tape being picked up by the head on the walkman. The head translates the information on the tape into an electrical signal that causes the headphones to produce music. Each codon calls for a specific amino acid to be attached onto the chain until the gene's instructions are fully expressed in the form of a protein. (proteins are simply a chain of amino acids twisted and folded in a specific shape) The protein that is produced is the expression of the gene's instructions, much like the music you hear is the ultimate expression of the stuff recorded on the original CD.

GENETIC CONCEPTS APPLIED TO GENOMIC COMPANIES

Q. Okay, so what's all this fuss about HGSI and all those other companies like that who are studying individual genes as opposed to companies like Celera and the government's HGP who are studying the entire human genome?

A. Ah, here's an interesting question.

1. Let's depict graphically (HA!) the relationship between a gene and the genome:

<----+++++---++++---+++++++++---++-----++++++--+-->
<-++---++-++++--+++++---------+++-----+++----->

Each <---++++----++--> line as you see above represents a strand of DNA. The genes are represented by blocks of ++++'s. The --- represents sections of DNA with no genes on it. Let's use a mapmaking analogy...

Genes would represent cities and towns... civilization. The blank spaces in between would represent the countryside or back woods where nobody lives...

Suppose you have a atlas of the world. You see continents, oceans, countries, states, provinces, and local regions. You know where everything is in relation to each other. If you were in a plane, and you were flying from New York to Boston, you could use the latitude and longitude to determine their locations, you might see some landmarks like rivers and mountains to guide you, other cities and towns in the area, etc. You know where those cities are in relation to one another, you know where they are in terms of the country, and you know where they are in the world. That is the point of sequencing and mapping the entire genome. It's like you're surveying the entire globe.

Now discovering and sequencing for genes on the other hand is rather like looking at a single city and making a map of just New York, or just Boston. You got every block of the city covered, though, in great detail. And some of those companies are trying to do more than just make city maps. They're trying to make tourist guides, restaurant reviews, etc. Essentially, they're trying to find the what characteristics each gene has as well -- what proteins they produce, what they do, how they are activated, etc.

Knowing everything about individual cities is one thing; knowing the general overview of the entire earth is another. But would you say one type of information is more important than the other? On one hand, you know everything about certain cities. But, assuming you have a stack of city maps, you still wouldn't know much about where they are in relation to each other, or in terms of their exact location on the earth. The flip side is that you have the broad overview of the entire planet with all the cities represented as little dots on the page, but you don't really know enough about the cities themselves.

So you have companies like HGSI, INCY, and others that are in the city mapmaking business, and you have CRA in the atlas or globe making business.

At the moment, it seems like city mapmaking is more useful, in that genes are the functional parts of the genome -- they are the parts of the genome that create functional (or dysfunctional) proteins that carry out the instructions of our genetic code. e.g., if we found that a certain gene was responsible for obesity, we could isolate and sequence it so we could produce a drug that could be taken by people with a defective obesity gene. Actually, we already have done that. It's called the leptin gene.

However, we would still like to know the big picture. People still buy both city maps and atlases. For example, where are these genes located? The American Midwest? The south of France? This kind of information would seem to be useful for medical diagnosis in the future. Imagine that the human genome is finally sequenced and mapped in its entirety. And imagine that they will have the ability to sequence your own personal genomic map. It could be part of everyone's medical chart in a decade. If you come into the doctor's office and say I'm not feeling well, the doctor could simply look at your genomic map and say "AHA! You have disease X. Let's book you for gene therapy next week."

Q. Where can I get more info?

A. Here are some useful links on:

Genetic Concepts
http://vector.cshl.org/dnaftb/asp/splashtable.asp

HGSI vs. HGP and Celera post
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1020007000462005&sort=postdate

US News article on HGP vs. Celera (Jan 2000)
http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/000103/genome.htm

Time Magazine article on Biotech and Genetics/Genomics
http://www.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/toc/0,3392,1101990111,00.html

The very excellent issue of Time may be a bit dated (Jan 1999), but it not only talks about the HGP, CRA, and the genetics/genomics industry in general, but also talks about the ethical questions that could haunt this sector in a couple years when the mainstream press starts sensationalizing the ethical issues of whether it's right or wrong, should we be playing God, etc.? You remember the small uproar when Dolly the sheep was cloned, right? It could be much worse when the human genome is mapped. What will happen to the genomics stocks? There's an issue to think about for my fellow Fools.

And don't forget to read the Buy Report on CRA for the RuleBreaker portfolio and the Individual Investor Genomics Stocks article (links near beginning of FAQ)
_________________________

Well, that's it for now. To the experts out there, please reply with corrections, comments, and suggestions where you see fit. For example, are those analogies clear or are they confusing? If there are other questions and answers that you think should be included, bring them up. Better yet, if anyone feels inclined to improve upon this FAQ by taking into account community suggestions, editing errors, and adding content, and thereby wishes to create a revised version, please do so! Your efforts will be appreciated by your fellow fools.
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Author: 4site Big red star, 1000 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1689 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 1:25 AM
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Edawg wrote : Q. What's the scoop on these genomics companies? Who are the players?

A. I've heard of Human Genome Sciences (HGSI), Incyte Pharmaceuticals (INCY), Millenium Pharmaceuticals (MLNM), Genome Therapeutics (GENE), Genentech (DNA), Celera Genomics (CRA), Gene Logic (GLGC), Myriad Genetics (MYGN), Genset (GENXY), PE Biosystems (PEB), Affymetrix (AFFX). Fellow fools can add to this list for subsequent versions of the FAQ.


I really question if DNA should be considered a genomics company. Also I think CRGN and QGENF might be considered as genentics related comapnies and thereby fall into the genomics sector. Otherwise an excellent post.


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Author: jmisasi One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1690 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 1:45 AM
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edawg8

Great post.... I have two thoughts:

1) Perhaps there should be a generic or simplified explanation of mol bio concepts and a more technical aspect.

2) Both the simple and more technical aspects can be created by linking to various explanations on this and other boards. I know that we have had discussions about patenting, what a gene is, on gene chips, on sequencing and several other topics in the past. Linking to these might be useful. Also, links to the online genetics texts and stuff.

That said, I will do my best in the coming weeks to submit stuff that i feel is relevant.

john (jmisasi)

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Author: jmisasi One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1691 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 1:51 AM
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I do realize that it will then end up not being little, but i think thorough and educational is often needed as well. For example, many of us here and elsewhere use mol bio terms that probably confuse the heck out of people. Some are confused because they have no background at all in bio, but others are confused because it is a new term or a new term for something they know as something else.

Well, I better stop now or I'll be asleep in class tommorow!

John (jmisasi)

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Author: edawg8 Old School Fool Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1692 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 6:46 AM
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1) Perhaps there should be a generic or simplified explanation of mol bio concepts and a more technical aspect.

I believe you're on to something... (please elaborate with respect to the current explanations and analogies used in the v.1 FAQ) What should be kept? What should be changed? How should it be changed?

2) Both the simple and more technical aspects can be created by linking to various explanations on this and other boards. I know that we have had discussions about patenting, what a gene is, on gene chips, on sequencing and several other topics in the past. Linking to these might be useful. Also, links to the online genetics texts and stuff.

Sounds like a good idea... um, you do know where these discussions exist, don't you? Although I registered for TMF in May, I've only been on TMF and sniffing around the biotech board for a week (I guess I'm a quick learner then, but I have been on xmas holidays, so no school, no work...) -- thus, I have never seen these messages you're referring to. If you could recall where you've seen them (and others could suggest their favorite posts as well), that would help a lot. Also, where are these online genetics texts you speak of? (they didn't have these when I was in physiology)

Thanks, John. Looking forward to your contributions.
-edawg8

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Author: domsheldon1 Three stars, 500 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1693 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 8:12 AM
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The creation of a common FAQ --> good idea !
Here's some more (I hope useful) information :

The Medline Fool !
To search , Educate , and Entertain !
http://www.medportal.com/


Also , ....
(For dummies like me)

Biotherapeutics and the traditional approach :
----------------------------------------------
I'm sure most of you know this already :
The great majority of drugs in use today consist of relative small chemical compounds .
Such drugs are often referred to as "small-molecule drugs", to distinguish them from proteins and other biotherapeutic drugs which are significantly larger molecules .
Typically , pharmaceuticals can be formulated into pills for oral consumption .
BIOPHARMACEUTICALS , on the other hand , typically
are only available in injectable form .
The term "pharmaceuticals" refers only to pills , or
small-molecule drugs .
And the term "biopharmaceuticals" is used to describe
proteins and other biotherapeutic drugs .
Biotherapeutics are proteins or nucleic acids administered to patients for therapeutic benefit .
Protein biotherapeutics in current use include : secreted proteins , such as interferons , erythropoitin , insulin and human growth hormone , therapeutic antibodies , such as OKT3 and ReoPro(R) , and vaccines , such as the vaccine for hepatitis B .
I must say , although these drugs are only available in
injectable form , this might change in the near future for some of these products , certainly in the case of insulin , cause INHALE Pharmaceuticals (INHL) and PFIZER are working on something very promising .
In 1998 , biotherapeutic products generated over
$ 12 billion in annual worldwide sales .

Needless to say , applications for biotherapeutics and
predictive medicine genomics and related technologies
have major applications in human healthcare beyond the
discovery of small-molecule drugs .
Key additional applications include the identification of important new biotherapeutic products and the
development of novel approaches to the prediction ,
diagnosis and management of diseases .



------------------------------------------------------


Also , you wrote :
<< Don't get wrapped up thinking what DNA does -- it does nothing. It's simply the material that genes are made out of. It's just like saying what is this desk made out of? Wood. What is the encyclopedia made out of? Nothing more than ink and paper. And the human genome? Yeah, it's made out of DNA. <<


DNA does "nothing" .
But , like you said , this is what genes are made out of , and some of the companies you mentioned are looking at gene and antisense therapy , so they need DNA ( = DeoxyriboNucleic Acid ) or RNA ( RiboNucleic Acid ) . But in the case of RNAs , they are actually doing something .
RNA is a group of naturally occuring informational
molecules which orchestrate a cell's behavior and which regulate the action of groups of cells , they can direct the production of proteins and regulate certain cell activities including the activation of otherwise dormant cellular defenses against viruses and tumors .

Sounds great , but if your favorite company wants to
develop new drugs using DNA or RNA , they better solve
a few problems before they start talking about selling it on the market , and you better know about these
problems before you decide to invest :

General "drug" problems :

1) Obviously , if there're competitors on the market ,
you've got to have competitive advantages with regard to :
-- effectiveness
-- dosing convenience
-- how the patients take the drug : injection , orally , topically ,
-- potential resistance development (HIV drugs)
-- and price .
note : only one competitive advantage might be enough .

2) If a combination therapy is needed , you have to
determine a few things :
-- are the drugs increasing eachothers' efffectiveness , known as drug synergy ?
-- are they inhibiting the effectiveness of the other drugs , known as antagonism ?
-- or is there no effect whatsoever , known as a neutral compound ?

The more specific problems regarding to nucleic acid
drugs (DNA or RNA) are :

1) one of the problems with nucleic acids is the stability problem , they have to be stable in the body , they have got to have a longer half - life , this allows a patient to take doses less frequently , which means less side effects .
-- NOTE 1 : if you have to administer say 300 mg of a
specific RNA drug to a patient directly into the blood (I.V), and acc. to the guidelines , this may only take you say 30 minutes , but it takes you 1 hour , the drug will probably lose its effectiveness .
-- NOTE 2 : usually , DNA has a longer half - life than RNA
-- NOTE 3 : I think I mentioned it before : gene therapy consists of the administration to a patient of a gene that encodes a protein having a therapeutic benefit .
It all depends on how long this gene will encode a protein , but when you use it for cancer and the tumor has regressed , then how are you going to terminate the therapy ?

2) the drugs are toxic because you have got to get these drugs into the cell(s) , and if you can't do that without side effects , you have a serious problem .Normally DNA drugs will be more effective than RNA ,
but DNA's much more toxic .
(This doesn't mean there're no effective RNA drugs !)
You can saturate cells cultured in vitro , and you will see some very promising results , but that's a luxury that is not practical in vivo . It's just too toxic for living organisms , you have to use too much of it , if you want to get it into the cell .
If you give the patient something like 1 million parts , only 1 part will actually enter the cell(s) , the other 999,999 parts don't enter the cell(s) , they dissolve in the blood and might cause kidney problems , etc.. .

If there's anyone who's investing in a company who
solved the delivery problem for a certain kind of new
drugs AND they have patents on it , post it on this board , please .

Note : a delivery system could be something like the
Trojan horse.


----------------------------------------------------
There's a hype surrounding the genomic information
companies , that's okay , but I personally think it's a bit too soon to hype up every other emerging biotech. company on our planet , like they did many years ago .
Sure , biotech IS the future , but I'm more or less a value investor , and it's already difficult enough to find good companies .
----------------------------------------------------


Here are some very useful links :

http://www.eurekalert.org

http://www.newswise.com

http://www.sciencedaily.com




D.





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Author: amosju Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1694 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 11:15 AM
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Can I agree? I have a Batchelors in Genetic Engineering, and can understand technical info if I can get it, but as it's hard to find I don't get any.

I'd be really inerested in investing in these types of companies

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Author: Carlipo Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1699 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 2:32 PM
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Biotech Sector should grow faster because of Molecular Logic Gates?

January 3, 2000
LA Times business section front page.
http://www.latimes.com

Most exotic fields of computing
molecular logic gates

Computing devices billions of times faster than today's most advanced machines. Created at UCLA and Hewlett-Packard.

Use rotaxanes

Also Fool, do you know of any good IPOs coming out that deals in Biotech Sector? This would be good to report on.

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Author: neverright Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1702 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 7:06 PM
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i too am interested in biotech stocks, on principle and for profit. amgen has done very well for me.

i think genetic research is of great importance and now that IBM has developed its 'blue gene', the work should become much faster and much more profitable. but, picking the right companies could be a challenge. any suggestions?

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Author: neverright Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1703 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 7:13 PM
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i should have read further before i asked the question about biotech stocks. thanks for the information. now i have some research to do <g>

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Author: jmisasi One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1708 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 10:42 PM
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Hi, This is from the Celera board on the topic of "What is a gene?" It started via
a post from KettleBelle on misinformation on the Celera board. The discussion started
and was subsequently moved to the thread "What is a gene?" I would say that links to
these posts would be good under the technical portion. Maybe organizing It along the lines
of:

What is a gene?

Gene's for Dummies

etc......

Advanced Gene's for Dummies

etc......


Anyhow, Here are the links.... I guess the links should be referenced in the Advanced section!

False Info: response by drosophilosopher to KettleBelle:

http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000197001&sort=id

bjanssen wrote:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000197006&sort=id


First What is a gene Post? in response to False info posts above:

jmisasi wrote:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000205000&sort=id

drosophilosopher wrote:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000205006&sort=id

bjanssen wrote:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000205011&sort=id





John (jmisasi)

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Author: drosophilosopher Three stars, 500 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1713 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 11:29 PM
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Can I agree? I have a Batchelors in Genetic Engineering, and can understand technical info if I can get it, but as it's hard to find I don't get any.

I'd be really inerested in investing in these types of companies


Sigh. I know this will be offensive, but... it's discouraging that one can earn a Bachelor's Degree without being able to spell it. You've hardened my resolve to take points off for spelling, grammar and arithmetic errors on biology exams.

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Author: jmisasi One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1716 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/6/2000 11:57 PM
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On Sequencing and Gene Chips

bjanssen:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1020007000183002&sort=id

bjanssen:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000039002&sort=postdate

jmisasi:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000039004&sort=postdate

bjanssen:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1080932000039007&sort=postdate

middleJoel: On mirror vs. chips
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1060070000047000&sort=id


On Genome Size:

bjanssen:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1020007000183003&sort=id

On Simplifying Terms

ScottAvery:
http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1020007000183005&sort=id

What is a Plasmid/Vector?

bjanssen:
http://boards.fool.com/message.asp?id=1020007000183033

There is another vector post on biotech or plasmids

That is all the links for now!

john (jmisasi)


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Author: shullman Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1736 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/7/2000 10:07 PM
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I am certainly no expert but I greatly appreciate your effort in providing this FAQ. EXCELLENT.

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Author: biostatprof One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1739 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/8/2000 4:15 PM
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drosophilosopher said:

> Sigh. I know this will be offensive, but... it's
> discouraging that one can earn a Bachelor's Degree
> without being able to spell it. You've hardened my
> resolve to take points off for spelling, grammar and
> arithmetic errors on biology exams.

OT -

My resolve long ago hardened on this for Stat papers. I take off for English etc. In fact, I spend 50%+ of my time with students fixing English and presentation issues and relatively little on the science/statistics. And I spend a huge percentage of my own time on my own writing including the details.

- BioStatProf

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Author: jgenome Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1817 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/11/2000 11:01 AM
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Good summary.

In your list of genome related companies you should also look at three other players:

Geron (GERN). They hold key patents to stem cells. These are undifferentiated cells that are pluripotent. That is they can become skin, bone, blood, kidney... These cells were the breakthrough of the year acording to Science (Dec 16, 1999).

Epoch Pharmaceuticals (EPPH). A small company, but one of their key investors is Celera.

Cubist (CBST). They are using techniques derived from gene discovery (i.e. combinatorial chemistry) to develop a new antibiotic. Robertson Stevens just started coverage.


each of these companies is so far relatively unknown and has not had the run up of Celera, HGSI, or Affymetrix. Nevertheless, their value has grown over 50% in the recent months.
One other thing you should consider, the most important gathering of general science each year is the AAAS meeting. many of the players will be in Washington, DC in February.



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Author: vangor94 Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1818 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/11/2000 1:19 PM
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Here's another genomics company to include in your list: CuraGen. Their stock has been on a tear lately rising over 1000% since summer. Here's an article from their website (www.curagen.com).


CuraGen Featured on CNBC Power Lunch

New Haven, CT -- December 6, 1999 —CuraGen Corporation (Nasdaq: CRGN), an integrated genomics-based drug discovery and development company, was featured today on CNBC's Power Lunch with Bill Griffith. Specifically, Jonathan Rothberg, Ph.D.,
CuraGen's Founder, Chairman, and CEO, discussed how CuraGen is uniquely positioned to utilize its patented technologies to translate the genomic data being generated by the Human Genome Project into knowledge for use in discovering and developing the next generation of pharmaceutical products.

The Human Genome Project, an international, Federally funded consortium created to sequence the human genome, announced last week that it had sequenced the genomic data from the 22nd chromosome. This raw data is similar to bits and bytes of computer code. Computers use Zeros and Ones that are assembled into a specific order that are translated by the CPU into a program that the computer can understand. The computer then runs tasks based upon these programs, resulting in the information needed by the programmer.

Very similarly, the Human Genome Project is producing raw genetic sequence (code) that then needs to be translated into aformat that scientists can use to develop drugs. CuraGen, with financial support from some of the same organizations that have funded the Human Genome Project, has created a set of functional technologies and databases that translates and assembles this raw genomic data into a format that scientists and pharmaceutical companies need to develop drugs.

CuraGen is uniquely positioned in the biotechnology industry as having a comprehensive and integrated package of genomic technologies that are patented, peer reviewed, and validated by the company's strategic collaborators.




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Author: heihojin Big red star, 1000 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1840 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/12/2000 5:14 AM
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The computer then runs tasks based upon these programs, resulting in the information needed by the programmer. . . . Very similarly, the Human Genome Project is producing raw genetic sequence (code) that then needs to be translated into a format that scientists can use to develop drugs.

This analogy seems overly simplistic to me.

From their website (http://www.curagen.com ), CRGN seems to be something of a cross between a bioinformatics company and a start-up pharmaceutical company. Yet, I didn't see any mention of pipeline drug candidates.


heihojin

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Author: vangor94 Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1844 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/12/2000 11:14 AM
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heihojin,

I think Curagen has focused on providing bioinformatic services to larger drug companies that were interested in colloborations using Curagen's patented technologies. See link below for latest patent out today.

http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/000112/ct_curagen_1.html

Since drugs are where the real money is, I think they would want to use their own technologies to find and develop their own drugs. My hope is that they become a start-up pharmaceutical company in the near future.

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Author: jmisasi One star, 50 posts Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 1970 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 1/18/2000 3:45 PM
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edawg8,

There was a question on the INCY board on what gene expression is. my response is at the link below:

http://boards.fool.com/Message.asp?id=1140184000070003&sort=postdate

john (jmisasi)

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Author: airbornne Add to my Favorite Fools Ignore this person (you won't see their posts anymore) Number: 2652 of 24983
Subject: Re: The Little Biotech FAQ, v.1 Date: 2/19/2000 6:18 PM
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well i have been interested in the biotech area for quite some time and have a good position in one of them called immunomedics-which i accumulated over the last 3 years-as i asked brokers for others i got no response and went on my way- only to be proven correct without the investments in the hot companies to prove it. however does anyone have reason to believe that immunomedics will be a strong company(immu) and are ther ways to find company names in sectors when one is interested in them.

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