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Many here might find this article interesting and perhaps even relevant to recent discussions. It illustrates limitations in the analytical methods used in neurobiology by asking whether current techniques would be able to elucidate the structure/function of a microprocessor. The answer is a surprising no. Suggests major limitations to what is mostly a reductionist approach to studying the brain. Article is open access.

https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/jo...

...To address this, here we take a classical microprocessor as a model organism, and use our ability to perform arbitrary experiments on it to see if popular data analysis methods from neuroscience can elucidate the way it processes information. Microprocessors are among those artificial information processing systems that are both complex and that we understand at all levels, from the overall logical flow, via logical gates, to the dynamics of transistors. We show that the approaches reveal interesting structure in the data but do not meaningfully describe the hierarchy of information processing in the microprocessor. This suggests current analytic approaches in neuroscience may fall short of producing meaningful understanding of neural systems, regardless of the amount of data. ...
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