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Greetings, SNM, and welcome. You asked:

This isn't my exact scenario, but...

Say that my income is $40k/year, and I max my 401k and Roth. Say I also have $70k in tax-free capital gains from selling my home.

If you combine my capital gains and my salary from above, that equals $110k. How would that affect my 401k and Roth? Do those capital gains count as salary, and therefore push me above the $95k Roth contribution issues?

Only your salary is considered in the limits regarding defined contribution (e.g., 401k) plan contribution maximums. To the extent that capital gains, interest and dividend income are included in your adjusted gross income, then those items might affect your ability to contribute to a Roth IRA or a deductible traditional IRA. So, your capital gains from the house sale will not affect your contribution to a 401k plan, but they might affect your contribution to a Roth IRA.

You will find the appropriate contribution limits spelled out in my Retirement Plan Primer at

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