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My belief is that the tire wells are a controlled environment of sorts for several reasons but not obvious ones perhaps.

Tires are commonly made of rubber compounds that cure near boiling temperature of water. In space temperatures swing from -250 to 250 deg F as the sun rises and falls. The tires would not survive this without delamination.

Boyle's law of pressure in a contained vessel of constant volume (essentially a tire is that) results in a pressure rise of about 1psi for every 4 deg F rise. Taking Shuttle tires from 70deg nominal at launch to 250 deg would see a rise in internal pressure of about 62 psi, more than a car tire might safely handle perhaps but not extreme by any means and certainly accounted for in the Shuttles design.

Atmospheric air pressure at sea level is about 14psi, at 5,000 ft it is about 12psi, going to 0 is not that traumatic for these tires.

Big mine haul tires and other applications sometimes fill tires with nitrogen to prevent rubber oxidaation.
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