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My question is whether I can claim any of this to reduce my tax bill? I am paying much more than 50% of her living expenses at this point, but she is still married so can I claim she is a dependent? Are there other considerations before I should do something like that?

You can't claim a dependent if they are MFJ. If your FIL is willing for them to file Married, Separately, given the circumstances that you have described, you should be able to claim your MIL as a dependent, and will be able to take a deduction on medical expenses that are in excess of 10% of your AGI.

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