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"We the people", interestingly the constitution never defines who "the people" are. As a result there has been a continuous change in its meaning based on the current social landscape and the context in which it is used in the constitution. Its use in the 1st, 2nd and 4th amendments is similar but SC justices over time have argued the differences.

The most obvious change to "the people" came when slaves and women were included as "people", while landownership was dropped as a requisite. So the definition is a moving target

The use of "the people" also varies by context. Article 1 Section 2 which covers election of house members, gives rise to the census, where the "people is" interpreted as everyone residing in the district, legal or illegal not being a consideration. So theoretically a congressman represents all the people in his district, legal or not, regardless of anything to do with voting.

Here is a paper on the subject, rather lengthy and quite ironic in places
http://harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol126_t...
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