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RE quantum computers: They are expected to break conventional RSA encryption using Shor’s algorithm once the computers reach a size of at least 1000 quits. The current largest is around 50 quits, and the difficulty in making them larger doesn’t scale linearly. We expect 10 to 30 years to reach the 1000 qubit quantum computer.

Quantum resistant classical algorithms are being developed and standardised. For these there will be no known quantum algorithm to break them ...yet.

Even if everything were to be broken tomorrow, there is some security in obscurity. Initially only governments and very large corporations will have quantum computers, and given the internet traffic, they won’t be wasting precious computing resources on hacking your communications. Quantum computers will also be used for drug discovery and physics simulations that can actually lead to revenue.

One solution is quantum key distribution, where cryptographic key data is exchanged in a manner in which you can determine is there was an eavesdropper. To be truely resistant to the quantum computer you need to use a one-time pad, where every data bit has a key bit. This is very slow.

In summary, there is no immediate threat, and a reasonable countermeasure being developed, so no need to panic.
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