No. of Recommendations: 1
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Yep, that's the one that gives Congress the power to tax.

If you can devise a tax that provides for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States, then go for it.

This specific clause provides Congress with no power to spend - just the power to tax to raise money to spend.

(So why is that middle part there? It's a protection against a common practice of states under the Articles of Confederation: to specify where and/or how the national government will spend money it gets from that state, usually meaning "actually, you're going to send the money back to this state." With this clause, the state can't pile on additional restrictions on how Congress spends money.)

A government grant is not a tax. A government spending program is not a tax. Government employment is not a tax. Taxes can (should) pay for those things - but the government's authority to do them is not in this clause.

You haven't attempted to answer how most of the remainder of Article 1 Section 8 has any effect, if the first clause is interpreted as "Congress can do anything it wants that isn't explicitly prohibited". Without such an explanation, this interpretation must be rejected.
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