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The decision is not going to end Roe vs Wade overnight, but if the court sides with Mississippi, it does open a new and huge can of caterpillars in oh so many areas. Euthanasia advocates would be first in line, followed by capital the punishment crew, to mention a few.

That's unlikely to be the case. Euthanasia and capital punishment involve very different legal doctrines, which have been subject to very different bodies of precedent. Even if the SCOTUS decision ended up turning on the issue of fetal pain, it would not really affect those other issues.

But there's a very good chance that the SCOTUS decision won't turn on fetal pain - or even reach the merits of whether the Mississippi law is constitutional. The district court refused to allow the state to introduce evidence on fetal pain (though it was proffered); the circuit court upheld that decision. The legal decision that was made by the courts below was:

1) Roe and Casey prohibit abortion bans before viability;
2) The regulation in question was a fetal ban before viability;
3) No state interest is constitutionally adequate to ban abortions before viability, so evidence relating to fetal pain (or any other matter) is not necessary to decide the constitutional challenge.

IOW, whether a fetus feels pain (or at what stage) is not a constitutionally relevant fact under SCTOUS precedent, so they didn't rule on it.

Because of that, the question before the SCOTUS is simply limited to whether the absolute ban on abortion bans prior to viability should be retained. I believe that's the only question that the Court granted cert. on as well. The Court isn't likely to reach whether fetal pain is something states can base restrictions on, or whether the Mississippi statute should or should not be upheld.

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