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Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in an ice-like form beneath the seabed, under the deep seafloor, close to edge of the landmasses that form our continents. This gas hydrate, sometimes known as 'ice that burns', has the potential to play a role as a substitute for coal in the coming decades...

China extracts 861,400 cubic metres of natural gas from ‘flammable ice’ in South China Sea
www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3077156/china-extrac...
The production process, which ran from February 17 to March 18, also set two world records: one for the largest total volume extracted and another for the most produced – 287,000 cubic metres – on a single day, the Ministry of Natural Resources said on its website....

The success of the latest trial set a “solid technical foundation for commercial exploitation”, the ministry said, adding that China was the first country in the world to exploit gas hydrates using a horizontal well-drilling technique.

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A fully instrumented well that will test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits has been safely installed on the North Slope of Alaska. As a result, the "Ignik Sikumi" (Inupiaq for "fire in the ice") gas hydrate field trial well will be available for field experiments as early as winter 2011-12.

Japan to test-drill for seabed 'burning ice'
www.energy-daily.com/reports/Japan_to_test-drill_for_seabed_...

Japan will seek to extract natural gas from seabed deposits of methane hydrate, also known as "burning ice"....The test is scheduled for a stretch of ocean southwest of Tokyo, between Shizuoka and Wakayama prefectures, over several weeks in the fiscal year to March 2013, the Nikkei financial daily said.

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is preparing to request more than 10 billion yen ($127.5 million) for the project, the report said....Methane hydrates are found in environments with high pressure and low temperatures such as the ocean floors, often near continental faultlines, where the gas crystallises on contact with cold sea water....

Japan has been looking to diversify its energy resources since the powerful March 11 earthquake and tsunami triggered the world's worst nuclear accident in 25 years at the Fukushima Daiichi plant northeast of Tokyo.

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http://www.energy-daily.com/reports/Japan_to_test-drill_for_...

Japan has been looking to diversify its energy resources since the powerful March 11 earthquake and tsunami triggered the world's worst nuclear accident in 25 years at the Fukushima Daiichi plant northeast of Tokyo.

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In other words, they want to burn more hydrocarbons. If they can figure out a way to economically extract the methane hydrates, perhaps the world will be burning a lot more hydrocarbons.

It sure looks to me that the UN needs to come up with Plan B. The Kyoto Protocol (Plan A) has failed. The renewable technologies installed in a few places have, so far, only slightly delayed the increase of CO2. Developing nations such as China and India are not slowing down their economic development.

Now, Japan is in the process of shutting down its nuclear plants, even though it is not official policy yet. Also, Japan is increasing imports of LNG, as it now has a power supply crisis. Now, the Japanese are looking for ways to mine methane hydrates.

If AGW is a real problem, and I'm not saying it is or it isn't. IF it is real problem, most of the world apparently doesn't care much. Sure, the IPCC and UN will continue to have meetings and expensively catered conferences. But what has been the result?

See graphical representation of the IPCC and UN successes here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mauna_Loa_Carbon_Dioxide-e...

- Pete
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Japan begins preparatory drilling for methane hydrate production
http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20120215p2g00m0dm089000c...

Japan began preparatory drilling for seabed methane hydrate production tests in the Pacific Ocean off Aichi Prefecture in central Japan on Wednesday after a one-day delay, officials of Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp. said. A deep-sea drilling vessel from another state-affiliated organization, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, started drilling in waters about 1,000 meters deep some 70 to 80 kilometers south of the Atsumi Peninsula, the officials said....

The vessel, called "Chikyu," which means Earth, will dig about 260 meters or more below the seabed and set up four wells by around late March. One of the four wells will be used for methane hydrate production tests and the remaining three will be used to monitor possible changes in the environment resulting from the project, such as temperature variations.

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Japan will seek to extract natural gas from seabed deposits of methane hydrate, also known as "burning ice"....The test is scheduled for a stretch of ocean southwest of Tokyo, between Shizuoka and Wakayama prefectures, over several weeks in the fiscal year to March 2013

China, Japan extract combustible ice from seafloor
https://phys.org/news/2017-05-china-japan-combustible-ice-se...
Combustible ice is a frozen mixture of water and concentrated natural gas. Technically known as methane hydrate, it can be lit on fire in its frozen state and is believed to comprise one of the world's most abundant fossil fuels.

The official Chinese news agency Xinhua reported that the fuel was successfully mined by a drilling rig operating in the South China Sea on Thursday....A drilling crew in Japan reported a similar successful operation two weeks earlier, on May 4 offshore the Shima Peninsula....

Japan first extracted some of the material in 2013 but ended the effort due to sand from the seafloor clogging machinery, according to the country's Ministry of Economy Trade and Tourism....

The consensus within the industry is that commercial development won't happen until at least 2030. Smaller scale output could happen as early as 2020, said Tim Collett, a scientist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

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Technically known as methane hydrate, it can be lit on fire in its frozen state and is believed to comprise one of the world's most abundant fossil fuels.
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If these resources are extracted to a significant extent, then that will be game-over for controlling the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Say goodbye to the Paris Agreement or any other toothless environmental policy.

According to wikipedia, the current low-end estimate for how much of these methane hydrates exist is 1E15 cubic meters of equivalent gaseous methane.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate#Reservoir_si...

In contrast, BP estimates total world natural gas reserves are 186.9 trillion cubic meters (0.1869E15 m3). So there is over 5 times (low-end estimate) more methane hydrates under the oceans than in all of the proved reserves of natural gas. By my calculation, just burning all of the known proved natural gas reserves would produce 361 billion tonnes of CO2.

http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statis...

Controlling the rise of the CO2 concentration is going to require a conscious effort to leave hydrocarbons in the ground. Right now, I don't see that happening. If hydrocarbon reserves can be exploited at a reasonable price, then they are going to be extracted and burned. That's the way the current world works.

- Pete
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New assessment of gas locked in ice in European waters
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200115130434.htm
Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in an ice-like form beneath the seabed, under the deep seafloor, close to edge of the landmasses that form our continents. This gas hydrate, sometimes known as 'ice that burns', has the potential to play a role as a substitute for coal in the coming decades, until there is sufficient renewable energy to meet society's demands.

This new inventory of gas hydrate deposits was undertaken as part of MIGRATE (Marine Gas Hydrates: An Indigenous Resource of Natural Gas for Europe)....

The research showed there are direct or indirect indications of the presence of hydrate at several European sites, including off the west and east coasts of Greenland, on and around the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (Barents Sea), off central Norway and west of Ireland. It is also present in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.

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Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in an ice-like form beneath the seabed, under the deep seafloor, close to edge of the landmasses that form our continents. This gas hydrate, sometimes known as 'ice that burns', has the potential to play a role as a substitute for coal in the coming decades...

China extracts 861,400 cubic metres of natural gas from ‘flammable ice’ in South China Sea
www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3077156/china-extrac...
The production process, which ran from February 17 to March 18, also set two world records: one for the largest total volume extracted and another for the most produced – 287,000 cubic metres – on a single day, the Ministry of Natural Resources said on its website....

The success of the latest trial set a “solid technical foundation for commercial exploitation”, the ministry said, adding that China was the first country in the world to exploit gas hydrates using a horizontal well-drilling technique.

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