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The amount of fresh water needed for energy production will double by 2035, according to the International Energy Agency.

According to the pie charts provided, coal power consumes by far the most amount of water, followed by biofuel production, then oil and gas production. Water is injected into the ground to frack shale rock formations for hydrocarbons.

People opposed to nuclear power like to complain about how much water the power plants consume, but nuclear only consumes about 5% of the water used for energy production. And that water isn't exactly lost. Most of the time, it is merely released into the air from the cooling towers. In this way, the water is eventually recycled back into rain or snow.

The new B&W small, modular nuclear reactor plants will have the option of having air-cooled steam condensers, which will greatly reduce the amount of water required for operations.

Also, some of the next generation nuclear plants will employ highly efficient closed-loop Brayton cycle cooling, which can also be set up for air cooling.

- Pete
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