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What, for comparison sake, would be my short term capital gains tax rate? Would those taxes need to be paid in advance of 12/31/20 via estimated tax payments to the IRS? Or just taken out during the filing process?

I am going to interpret this as:
"Do I have to make estimated tax payments to the IRS?"
"Will I have to pay extra if I don't make estimated tax payments to the IRS?"

And the answer is of course "It depends".

Do you have a "normal" job where a company pays you and gives you a W-2 for tax purposes?
I'm guessing you do.

On your 1040 for last year, there's a line "Total Payments" (probably it is mostly amounts taken out of your paycheck and reported on your W-2)
And there is a line "Total Tax"

If your W-2 for 2020 will have *more* than the "Total Tax" from your 2019's 1040, you are in a "safe harbor" and won't have interest or penalties on any taxes you still owe.
If you make >$150k in 2020, the 2020 payments (taken out of your paycheck) need to be >110% of your total tax from 2019.
If you make <$150k in 2020, the 2020 payments only need to be >100% of your total tax from 2019.

This is usually the safe harbor from underpayment penalties that I use.

Other options to avoid underpayment penalties are:
* pay at least 90% of the tax owed for the current year (ie. make sure you're paying in at least 90% of what will be the total tax on the 2020's 1040)
* owe less than $1000

If you look at your paycheck stub it probably has amount withheld for federal taxes.
You can look at that and guesstimate what will be withheld for remaining paychecks you'll get in 2020.
And then compare that to your 2019 "Total Tax".
There *may* be enough time right now that you can increase your tax withheld in your last paycheck or 2 for the year. (You can ask your company's payroll/HR person about increasing the $ withheld and if they can get it processed in time for your next paycheck.)

If you won't fall within a safe harbor just from W-2 withholding, you can still make estimated tax payments to minimize or avoid underpayment penalties and interest. I find it easiest to use the safe harbor. But if you aren't going to hit one of those safe harbors, I'd ask in a separate thread about how to calculate estimated payments. If you provide details (ie. amounts of gains/losses and dates of realizing those gains/losses) and total wages (at least approximate) and amounts withheld for 2020, someone probably will help with what you should do for estimated taxes. I don't like sharing that much information myself - so it's understandable if you don't want to either. With details like that, people can give you more detailed answers though.

BTW - Due dates for estimated tax payments were July 15 (For income from Jan through May), Sept 15 (income June 1-Aug 31), and Jan 15, 20201 (for income Sept. 1-Dec.31)

So if your trades that resulted in cap gains were after Sept. 1, you have until Jan 15 to make an estimated tax payment for those cap gains.

An article about avoiding underpayment penalties:
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